As species of conservation interest those included in Annexes II and IV by the Habitats Directive (DC 92/43/EEC) are considered, as well as the birds in Annex I of the DC 79/409/EEC, along with the ones catalogued as “Endangered Species” and "Vulnerable" according to the Spanish and Galician Endangered Species Catalogues.

The Biosphere Reserve Terras do Miño has a significant number of species considered of conservation concern. According to what is presented in the biodiversity database handled by the IBADER, within the territorial scope of the Reserve, up to a number of 123 different species are mentioned. The largest group corresponding to birds, where up to 42 species are listed, a large part of the ones related to Terra Cha wetlands or to the traditional agricultural mosaic that is still preserved in the Upper Miño basin.

Most part of the birds of conservation concern present in Terras do Miño are so due to the fact of having been included in Annex I of the Birds Directive (33 of them), but it is also remarkable the presence of 4 species classified as “Endangered” in the Spanish Catalogue of Endangered Species: Chlidonias niger, Numenius arquata, Emberiza schoeniclus and Botaurus stellaris. To this list we should add the endangered the “endangered” bird species according to the Spanish Catalogue of Threatened Species: Valellus Vanellus, Tetrax tetrax and Burhinus oedicnemus.

The variety and the state of preservation of the wetlands enables the conservation of species of other groups. Invertebrates such as Margaritifera margaritifera and Anodonta cygnea; mammals like the otter (Lutra lutra) and the Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyreanicus) are examples of fauna species presented in Annex II of the DC 92/43/EEC present in freshwater bodies of the Upper Miño basin.

Linked to the agricultural systems and rural core areas scattered throughout the Reserve Terras do Miño territorial areas, bats are remarkable. Among the 16 species of mammals included in the community directives or in the regional and state Catalogues of Endangered Species, there are 13 corresponding to some kind of bat. In this faunal group of species stand out for the consideration as “Vulnerable” species Miniopterus schreibersii, Rhinolophus euryale, Galemys pyrenaicus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis myotis.